TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 1. TEXAS HIGHER EDUCATION COORDINATING BOARD

CHAPTER 17. RESOURCE PLANNING

SUBCHAPTER D. RULES APPLYING TO NEW CONSTRUCTION AND ADDITION PROJECTS

19 TAC §17.30

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board proposes amendments to §17.30, concerning rules applying to new construction and addition projects. Specifically, the proposed amendments will revise the project standard for construction costs, and add the utilization standard. The change in the construction cost standard would replace the criteria from a range of projects approved in the past five years to the standard of construction costs not to exceed the mean plus one standard deviation above the mean of construction costs for the projects approved in the past seven years. The new standard for utilization is replacing the guideline of classroom and class laboratories hours per week. The utilization standard will be the combination of three factors; room demand, hours per week of use, and percent of student stations filled.

Susan Brown, Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendments are in effect, there will not be any fiscal implications to state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amended section.

Ms. Brown has also determined that for each year of the first five years the amendments are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of administering the amended section will be more efficient Board operations relating to institution facility project approvals. There is no effect on small businesses. There are no anticipated economic costs to persons who are required to comply with the amendments as proposed. There is no impact on local employment.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Gary W. Johnstone, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, 1200 East Anderson Lane, Austin, Texas 78752, gary.johnstone@thecb.state.tx.us. Comments will be accepted for 30 days following publication of the proposal in the Texas Register.

The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.027, 61.0572, and 61.058.

The amendments affect Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.0572, and 61.058.

§17.30.Standards for New Construction and/or Addition Projects.

To obtain Board approval for a new construction and/or addition project, an institution shall demonstrate that the project complies with the following standards:

(1) (No change.)

(2) Project Standards. The institution shall demonstrate that a new construction or addition project complies with the following project standards:

(A) (No change.)

(B) Cost--The construction building cost per gross square foot shall not exceed one standard deviation above the mean [be within the range ] of similar projects approved by the Board within the last seven [five] years, adjusted for inflation as described in the board's Construction Cost report (§17.100 of this title (relating to Board Reports)). The estimated construction cost of the project will be adjusted by the future inflation factor based on the projected timeline of the construction midpoint. If the construction cost per gross square foot exceeds one standard deviation above the mean [the maximum cost ] of similarly approved projects,[ the cost per gross square foot shall not exceed the highest actual construction cost per gross square foot based on industry standards ] as published periodically by the Coordinating Board [ unless] the institution shall [can ] demonstrate that the higher cost is due to market conditions or other circumstances that warrant the higher cost.

(C) (No change.)

(D) Usage Efficiency--The use of existing classroom and class laboratory facilities will be considered when the project includes Education & General (E&G) square footage.

(i) Classroom usage efficiency--

(I) A score of 75 points or higher is considered as meeting the standard.

(II) The classroom score will determine compliance for projects involving the following facility types: classroom, general; auditorium/theater; other facility types that appear, as determined by the THECB staff, to contain classrooms or similar space.

(III) The approval authority as specified in Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) rules has the discretion to consider classroom score in considering approval for projects related to any facility type.

(ii) Class laboratory usage efficiency--

(I) A score of 75 points or higher is considered as meeting the standard.

(II) The class laboratory score will determine compliance for projects involving facility type laboratory, general and other facility types that appear, as determined by the THECB staff, to contain class laboratories or similar space.

(III) The approval authority as specified in THECB rules has the discretion to consider class laboratory score in considering approval for projects related to any facility type.

(iii) Overall usage efficiency--

(I) Overall score is a function of the classroom and class laboratory scores. A combined score of 150 or higher, as determined by summing the classroom and class laboratory scores, is considered as meeting the overall standard.

(II) The overall score will determine compliance for projects involving the following facility types: athletic; library/study facilities; office, general; office, high rise; office, technology; physical plant; student center; other; and projects that, at the discretion of the THECB staff, cannot clearly be classified in a single category of facility type.

(III) The approval authority as specified in THECB rules has the discretion to consider the overall score in considering approval for projects related to all facility types.

(iv) Non-compliance--If an institution is not in compliance with any standard outlined in clauses (i) - (iii) of this subparagraph, the Board may approve the project if the institution has submitted a written plan of action, on a form specified by the Board, for substantial progress toward meeting the standard. The plan must include:

(I) An explanation of the factors influencing the current utilization score and the expected growth and how the plan of action will improve institutional performance.

(II) A demonstration that, upon completion of the project, the institution will meet the utilization standards.

(III) The plan shall be signed by the president of the institution. The president of the institution may not delegate this authority within the requesting institution.

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900393

Bill Franz

General Counsel

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Proposed date of adoption: April 30, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 427-6114


19 TAC §17.31

(Editor's note: The text of the following section proposed for repeal will not be published. The section may be examined in the offices of the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board or in the Texas Register office, Room 245, James Earl Rudder Building, 1019 Brazos Street, Austin.)

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board proposes the repeal of §17.31, concerning rules applying to new construction and addition projects. Specifically, the proposed repeal will delete the additional guideline section. The change in the construction cost standard would replace the criteria from a range of projects approved in the past five years to the standard of construction costs not to exceed the mean plus one standard deviation above the mean of construction costs for the projects approved in the past seven years. The new standard for utilization is replacing the guideline of classroom and class laboratories hours per week. The utilization standard will be the combination of three factors; room demand, hours per week of use, and percent of student stations filled.

Susan Brown, Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, has determined that for each year of the first five years the repeal is in effect, there will not be any fiscal implications to state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the repeal as proposed.

Ms. Brown has also determined that for each year of the first five years the repeal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of administering the repeal will be more efficient Board operations relating to institution facility project approvals. There is no effect on small businesses. There are no anticipated economic costs to persons who are required to comply with the repeal as proposed. There is no impact on local employment.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Gary W. Johnstone, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, 1200 East Anderson Lane, Austin, Texas 78752, gary.johnstone@thecb.state.tx.us. Comments will be accepted for 30 days following publication of the proposal in the Texas Register.

The repeal is proposed under the Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.027, 61.0572, and 61.058.

The repeal affects Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.0572, and 61.058.

§17.31.Additional Guidelines.

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900394

Bill Franz

General Counsel

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Proposed date of adoption: April 30, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 427-6114


SUBCHAPTER K. REPORTS

19 TAC §17.100

The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board proposes amendments to §17.100, concerning rules applying to board reports. Specifically, the proposed amendments will revise the definition of construction costs for the board report. The change in the construction cost report would replace the average cost with the mean and mean plus one standard deviation above the mean on the report for the projects approved in the past seven, instead of five years. The rule change would also add adjustments for the region of the state where the project is located and the future inflation factor. The rule change would modify the report to include only costs of new construction/additions and repair and renovation only. The separate calculation of parking construction and housing costs would be eliminated and would continue to be included in the report as a facility type.

Susan Brown, Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendments are in effect, there will not be any fiscal implications to state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amended section.

Ms. Brown has also determined that for each year of the first five years the amendments are in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of administering the amended section will be more efficient Board operations relating to institution facility project approvals. There is no effect on small businesses. There are no anticipated economic costs to persons who are required to comply with the amendments as proposed. There is no impact on local employment.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Gary W. Johnstone, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Planning and Accountability, 1200 East Anderson Lane, Austin, Texas 78752, gary.johnstone@thecb.state.tx.us. Comments will be accepted for 30 days following publication of the proposal in the Texas Register.

The amendments are proposed under the Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.027, 61.0572, and 61.058.

The amendments affect Texas Education Code, §§51.927, 61.0572, and 61.058.

§17.100.Board Reports.

The Board shall annually prepare the following reports:

(1) - (3) (No change.)

(4) Construction Costs.

(A) Periodic Review. The Board shall annually (not later than October 1 of each year) calculate and report mean and one standard deviation above the mean [ average] construction building costs per square foot. The costs shall be based on similar projects approved by the Board, within the immediate prior seven [five ] years, annually adjusted for inflation for the region of the state where the project is located. As a minimum, the calculations shall be developed for both new construction/addition and repair and renovation for all facility types available [the following project types] and shall be published on the agency website.

[(i) New construction/addition;]

[(ii) Repair and renovation;]

[(iii) Parking construction costs; and]

[(iv) Housing costs per bed for residential projects.]

(B) (No change.)

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900395

Bill Franz

General Counsel

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Proposed date of adoption: April 30, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 427-6114


PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 30. ADMINISTRATION

SUBCHAPTER A. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION: GENERAL PROVISIONS

19 TAC §30.1

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §30.1, concerning petitioning for adoption of rule changes. The section establishes the SBOE process for petitioning the adoption of changes to SBOE rules, as required by Texas Government Code, §2001.021. The proposed amendment would adopt in rule the form to be used when an individual elects to petition adoption of SBOE rule changes in the Texas Administrative Code.

Texas Government Code, §2001.021, requires that procedures to petition for the adoption of rule changes be adopted by rule. To comply with statute, the SBOE adopted 19 TAC Chapter 30, Administration, Subchapter A, State Board of Education: General Provisions, §30.1, Petition for Adoption of Rule Changes, effective December 5, 2004. Prior to the adoption of 19 TAC §30.1, procedures to petition for the adoption of changes to SBOE rules were included as part of the SBOE's operating rules.

In conjunction with the adoption of the review of SBOE rules in 19 TAC Chapter 30, Subchapter A, during its January 2009 meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization the proposed amendment to 19 TAC §30.1. At the advice of Texas Education Agency (TEA) legal counsel, the proposed amendment would adopt in rule as a figure the form used to petition for the adoption of rule changes to ensure compliance with statute and increase public awareness. The form has been posted on the TEA rules website since initial adoption of 19 TAC §30.1 in December 2004. Technical updates would also be incorporated throughout the rule, including adding new subsection (d) to clarify that the SBOE may propose language that differs from the language proposed by the petitioner.

Criss Cloudt, associate commissioner for assessment, accountability, and data quality, has determined that for the first five-year period the amendment is in effect there will be no additional costs for state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amendment.

Dr. Cloudt has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendment is in effect the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendment would be to help increase public awareness of the SBOE's procedures for petitioning rule changes by adopting in rule the petition form. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendment.

In addition, there is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Policy Coordination Division, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701, (512) 475-1497. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.state.tx.us or faxed to (512) 463-0028. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 15 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

The amendment is proposed under the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, which authorizes a state agency to by rule prescribe the form for a petition and the procedure for the submission, consideration, and disposition.

The amendment implements the Texas Government Code, §2001.021.

§30.1.Petition for Adoption of Rule Changes.

(a) Any interested person may petition for the adoption, [or] amendment, or repeal of a rule of the State Board of Education (SBOE) by filing a petition on a form provided in this subsection [approved by the commissioner of education] . The petition shall be signed and submitted to the commissioner of education [ or a designee] . In consultation with the persons in the Texas Education Agency who are responsible for the area with which the rule is concerned, the commissioner [of education] shall evaluate the merits of the proposal to determine whether to recommend that rulemaking proceedings be initiated or that the petition be denied.

Figure: 19 TAC §30.1(a) (.pdf)

(b) In accordance with the Texas Government Code, §2001.021, the agency must respond to the petitioner [a petition for the adoption or amendment of a rule] within 60 days of receipt of the petition.

(1) Where possible, the commissioner's recommendation concerning the petition shall be placed on the SBOE [ board] agenda, and the SBOE [board ] shall act on the petition within the 60-day time limit.

(2) Where the time required to review the petition or the scheduling of SBOE [board] meetings will not permit the SBOE [board] to act on the petition within the required 60 days, the commissioner [of education] or a designee shall respond to the petitioner within the required 60 days, notifying the petitioner of the date of the SBOE [ board] meeting at which the recommendation will be presented to the SBOE [board] for action.

(c) The SBOE [State Board of Education] will review the petition and the recommendation of the commissioner and will either direct the commissioner to begin the rulemaking process or deny the petition, giving reasons for the denial. The commissioner or designee will notify the petitioner of the SBOE's [board's] action related to the petition.

(d) If the SBOE initiates rulemaking procedures in response to a petition, the rule text which the SBOE proposes may differ from the rule text proposed by the petitioner.

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900386

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Policy Coordination

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: March 15, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 112. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SCIENCE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes amendments to §§112.1, 112.21, and 112.41 and new §§112.10 - 112.16, 112.17 - 112.20, and 112.31 - 112.39, concerning the Texas essential knowledge and skills (TEKS) for science. The sections establish the TEKS for science courses in elementary, middle school, and high school. The proposed amendments and new sections would establish revised science TEKS for implementation beginning with the 2010-2011 school year.

In January, February, April, May, September, October, and December 2008, educator committees were convened to review the science TEKS, including the development of TEKS for a new earth and space science course. During the September 2008 meeting, the SBOE received draft recommendations for proposed revisions to the science TEKS. Informal public feedback and feedback from expert reviewers was shared with the science TEKS review committees as they continued to work on their recommendations for proposed revisions in November and December 2008. A discussion item regarding the proposed amendments to 19 TAC Chapter 112 was presented to the SBOE Committee of the Full Board during the November 2008 meeting.

During its January 2009 meeting, the SBOE took action to approve for first reading and filing authorization proposed revisions to 19 TAC Chapter 112, Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Subchapter A, Elementary, Subchapter B, Middle School, and Subchapter C, High School.

Anita Givens, acting associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five-year period the amendments and new sections are in effect there will be fiscal implications for state and local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amendments and new sections.

There will be normal business costs associated with this process for the Texas Education Agency (TEA), including staff travel, meeting accommodations, and production and dissemination of documents. In addition, a need for the development and implementation of professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the amended science TEKS is anticipated. It is not possible to determine the exact fiscal implication until input is received from districts regarding potential needs. It is also possible that additional instructional materials or supplements to instructional materials might be needed.

There are anticipated fiscal implications for school districts to implement the revised TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

Ms. Givens has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendments are in effect the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the rule actions would include better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendments and new sections.

There is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses or microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Policy Coordination Division, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701, (512) 475-1497. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.state.tx.us or faxed to (512) 463-0028. In conjunction with the regularly scheduled March 2009 State Board of Education meeting, a public hearing on the proposal will be held on Wednesday, March 25, 2009, in Room 1-104, William B. Travis Building, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§112.1, 112.10 - 112.16

The amendment and new sections are proposed under the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4), which authorizes the SBOE to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; and §28.002, which authorizes the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject of the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating textbooks and addressed on the assessment instruments.

The amendment and new sections implement the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002.

§112.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary.

The provisions of §§112.2 - 112.7 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.11 - 112.16 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year [ implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.28(a)-(f) of this title (relating to Science)].

§112.10.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Elementary, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

The provisions of §§112.11 - 112.16 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.2 - 112.7 of this subchapter.

§112.11.Science, Kindergarten, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(4) In Kindergarten, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme throughout the study of scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. Other patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate the life cycle of plants and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) discuss the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and

(C) demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reusing or recycling paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data and observations using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations with others about simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as the impact of littering on the playground and propose a solution in his/her own words;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns in nature such as the shapes of leaves; and

(C) explore that scientists investigate different things in the natural world and use tools to help in their investigations.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect information using tools, including cameras; computers; hand lenses; non-standard measuring items such as paper clips and clothespins; weather instruments such as demonstration thermometers and wind socks; primary balances; cups; bowls; timing devices, including clocks and timers; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use senses as a tool of observation to identify properties and patterns of organisms, objects, and events in the environment.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record properties of objects, including relative size and mass, such as bigger or smaller and heavier or lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) observe, record, and discuss how materials can be changed by heating or cooling.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy, force, and motion are related and are a part of their everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) use the five senses to explore different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound;

(B) explore interactions between magnets and various materials;

(C) observe and describe the location of an object in relation to another such as above, below, behind, in front of, and beside; and

(D) observe and describe the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zigzag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, describe, compare, and sort rocks by size, shape, color, and texture;

(B) observe and describe physical properties of natural sources of water, including color and clarity; and

(C) give examples of ways rocks, soil, and water are useful.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe weather changes from day to day and over seasons;

(B) identify events that have repeating patterns, including seasons of the year and day and night; and

(C) observe, describe, and illustrate objects in the sky such as the clouds, Moon, and stars, including the Sun.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that plants and animals have basic needs and depend on the living and nonliving things around them for survival. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between living and nonliving things based upon whether they have basic needs and produce offspring; and

(B) examine evidence that living organisms have basic needs such as food, water, and shelter for animals and air, water, nutrients, sunlight, and space for plants.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) sort plants and animals into groups based on physical characteristics such as color, size, body covering, or leaf shape;

(B) identify parts of plants such as roots, stem, and leaves and parts of animals such as head, eyes, and limbs;

(C) identify ways that young plants resemble the parent plant; and

(D) observe changes that are part of a simple life cycle of a plant: seed, seedling, plant, flower, and fruit.

§112.12.Science, Grade 1, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 80% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 1, students observe and describe the natural world using their five senses. Students do science as inquiry in order to develop and enrich their abilities to understand the world around them in the context of scientific concepts and processes. Students develop vocabulary through their experiences investigating properties of common objects, earth materials, and organisms.

(A) A central theme in first grade science is active engagement in asking questions, communicating ideas, and exploring with scientific tools in order to explain scientific concepts and processes like scientific investigation and reasoning; matter and energy; force, motion, and energy; Earth and space; and organisms and environment. Scientific investigation and reasoning involves practicing safe procedures, asking questions about the natural world, and seeking answers to those questions through simple observations and descriptive investigations.

(B) Matter is described in terms of its physical properties, including relative size and mass, shape, color, and texture. The importance of light, heat, and sound energy is identified as it relates to the students' everyday life. The location and motion of objects are explored.

(C) Weather is recorded and discussed on a daily basis so students may begin to recognize patterns in the weather. In addition, patterns are observed in the appearance of objects in the sky.

(D) In life science, students recognize the interdependence of organisms in the natural world. They understand that all organisms have basic needs that can be satisfied through interactions with living and nonliving things. Students will investigate life cycles of animals and identify likenesses between parents and offspring.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and uses environmentally appropriate and responsible practices. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) recognize the importance of safe practices to keep self and others safe and healthy; and

(C) identify and learn how to use natural resources and materials, including conservation and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metals.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities to ask questions and seek answers in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events observed in the natural world;

(B) plan and conduct simple descriptive investigations such as ways objects move;

(C) collect data and make observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words; and

(E) communicate observations and provide reasons for explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking are used in scientific problem solving. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem such as finding a home for a classroom pet and propose a solution in his/her own words;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) describe what scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including cameras; computers; hand lenses; non-standard measuring items such as paper clips and clothespins; weather tools such as classroom demonstration thermometers and weather vanes; primary balances; cups; bowls; timing devices, including clocks and timers; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as aquariums and terrariums; and safety goggles; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that objects have properties and patterns. The student is expected to:

(A) classify objects by observable properties of the materials from which they are made such as larger and smaller, heavier and lighter, shape, color, and texture; and

(B) predict and identify changes in materials caused by heating and cooling such as ice melting, water freezing, and water evaporating.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that force, motion, and energy are related and are a part of everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and discuss how different forms of energy such as light, heat, and sound are important to everyday life;

(B) predict and describe how a magnet can be used to push or pull an object;

(C) describe the change in the location of an object such as closer to, nearer to, and farther from; and

(D) demonstrate and record the ways that objects can move such as in a straight line, zig zag, up and down, back and forth, round and round, and fast and slow.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes rocks, soil, and water that can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, compare, describe, and sort components of soil by size, texture, and color;

(B) identify and describe a variety of natural sources of water, including streams, lakes, and oceans; and

(C) gather evidence of how rocks, soil, and water help to make useful products.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes the air around us and objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) record weather information, including relative temperature, such as hot or cold, clear or cloudy, calm or windy, and rainy or icy;

(B) observe and record changes in the appearance of objects in the sky such as clouds, the Moon, and stars, including the Sun;

(C) identify characteristics of the seasons of the year; and

(D) demonstrate that air is all around us and observe that wind is moving air.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that the living environment is composed of relationships between organisms and the life cycles that occur. The student is expected to:

(A) sort and classify living and nonliving things based upon whether or not they have basic needs and produce offspring;

(B) analyze and record examples of interdependence found in various situations such as terrariums and aquariums or pet and caregiver; and

(C) gather evidence of interdependence among living organisms such as energy transfer through food chains and animals using plants for shelter.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how the external characteristics of an animal are related to where it lives, how it moves, and what it eats;

(B) identify and compare the parts of plants;

(C) compare ways that young animals resemble their parents; and

(D) observe and record life cycles of animals such as a chicken, frog, or fish.

§112.13.Science, Grade 2, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 2, careful observation and investigation are used to learn about the natural world and reveal patterns, changes, and cycles. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by using observation and investigations and that the information gathered in these may change as new observations are made. As students participate in investigation, they develop the skills necessary to do science as well as develop new science concepts.

(A) Within the physical environment, students expand their understanding of the properties of objects such as shape, mass, temperature, and flexibility then use those properties to compare, classify, and then combine the objects to do something that they could not do before. Students manipulate objects to demonstrate a change in motion and position.

(B) Within the natural environment, students will observe the properties of earth materials as well as predictable patterns that occur on Earth and in the sky. The students understand that those patterns are used to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation.

(C) Within the living environment, students explore patterns, systems, and cycles by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all the components within their habitat. Students examine how living organisms depend on each other and on their environment.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately;

(B) describe the importance of safe practices; and

(C) identify and demonstrate how to use, conserve, and dispose of natural resources and materials such as conserving water and reuse or recycling of paper, plastic, and metal.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations;

(B) plan and conduct descriptive investigations such as how organisms grow;

(C) collect data from observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, thermometers, and non-standard measurement tools;

(D) record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words;

(E) communicate observations and justify explanations using student-generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

(F) compare results of investigations with what students and scientists know about the world.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a task and solution for the problem such as lack of water in a habitat;

(B) make predictions based on observable patterns; and

(C) identify what a scientist is and explore what different scientists do.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age-appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including cameras; computers; hand lenses; rulers; weather instruments such as thermometers and rain gauges; primary balances; plastic beakers; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and safety goggles; and

(B) measure and compare organisms and objects using non-standard units that approximate metric units.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter by physical properties, including shape, relative mass, relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid;

(B) compare changes in materials caused by heating and cooling;

(C) demonstrate that things can be done to materials to change their physical properties such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting; and

(D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical properties.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate the effects on an object by increasing or decreasing amounts of light, heat, and sound energy such as how the color of an object appears different in dimmer light or how heat melts butter;

(B) observe and identify how magnets are used in everyday life;

(C) trace the changes in the position of an object over time such as a cup rolling on the floor and a car rolling down a ramp; and

(D) compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the various sizes of rock such as boulders and gravel;

(B) identify and compare the properties of natural sources of freshwater and saltwater; and

(C) distinguish between natural and manmade resources.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, record, and graph weather information, including temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, and cloud coverage, in order to identify patterns in the data;

(B) identify the importance of weather and seasonal information to make choices in clothing, activities, and transportation;

(C) explore the processes in the water cycle, including evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, as connected to weather conditions; and

(D) observe, describe, and record patterns caused by objects in the sky, including shadows and the appearance of the Moon.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs that must be met for them to survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the basic needs of plants and animals;

(B) identify factors in the environment, including temperature and precipitation, that affect growth and behavior such as migration, hibernation, and dormancy of living things; and

(C) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments such as food chains within a garden, park, beach, lake, and wooded area.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms resemble their parents and have structures and processes that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics and behaviors of animals help them meet their basic needs such as fins help fish move and balance in the water;

(B) observe, record, and compare how the physical characteristics of plants help them meet their basic needs such as stems carry water throughout the plant; and

(C) investigate and record some of the unique stages that insects undergo during their life cycle.

§112.14.Science, Grade 3, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information while addressing the content and vocabulary in physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 60% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 3, students learn that the study of science uses appropriate tools and safe practices in planning and implementing investigations, asking and answering questions, collecting data by observing and measuring, and by using models to support scientific inquiry about the natural world.

(A) Students recognize that patterns, relationships, and cycles exist in matter. Students will investigate the physical properties of matter and will learn that changes occur. They explore mixtures and investigate light, sound, and heat/thermal energy in everyday life. Students manipulate objects by pushing and pulling to demonstrate changes in motion and position.

(B) Students investigate how the surface of Earth changes and provides resources that humans use. As students explore objects in the sky, they describe how relationships affect patterns and cycles on Earth. Students will construct models to demonstrate Sun, Earth, and Moon system relationships and will describe the Sun's role in the water cycle.

(C) Students explore patterns, systems, and cycles within environments by investigating characteristics of organisms, life cycles, and interactions among all components of the natural environment. Students examine how the environment plays a key role in survival. Students know that when changes in the environment occur organisms may thrive, become ill, or perish.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following school and home safety procedures and environmentally appropriate practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including observing a schoolyard habitat; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world;

(B) collect data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data;

(C) construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data;

(D) analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information, critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) justify an explanation, argument, or conclusion using student-generated data;

(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys and food;

(C) represent the natural world using models such as volcanoes or Sun, Earth, and Moon system and identify their limitations, including size, properties, and materials; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including microscopes; cameras; computers; hand lenses; metric rulers; Celsius thermometers; pan balances; graduated cylinders; beakers; hot plates; meter sticks; compasses; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; sound recorders; Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, test, and record physical properties of matter, including temperature, mass, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) describe and classify samples of matter as solids, liquids, and gases and demonstrate that solids have a definite shape and that liquids and gases take the shape of their container;

(C) predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling; and

(D) explore and recognize that a mixture is created when two materials are combined such as gravel and sand and metal and plastic paper clips.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to:

(A) explore different forms of energy, including light, sound, and heat/thermal in everyday life;

(B) demonstrate and observe that position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects such as swings, cars, and balls; and

(C) observe forces such as magnetism and gravity acting on objects.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) explore and record how soils are formed by weathering of rock and the decomposition of plant and animal remains;

(B) investigate rapid changes in Earth's surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides;

(C) identify and compare different landforms, including mountains, hills, valleys, and plains; and

(D) explore the characteristics of natural resources that make them useful in products and materials such as clothing and furniture and how resources may be conserved.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) observe, measure, record, and compare day-to-day weather changes in different locations at the same time that include air temperature, wind direction, and precipitation;

(B) describe and illustrate the Sun as a star composed of gases that provides light and heat energy for the water cycle; and

(C) construct models that demonstrate the relationship of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, including orbits and positions.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms have characteristics that help them survive and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities within an ecosystem;

(B) identify and describe the flow of energy in a food chain and predict how changes in a food chain affect the ecosystem such as removal of frogs from a pond or bees from a field; and

(C) describe environmental changes such as floods and droughts where some organisms thrive and others perish or move to new locations.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how structures and functions of plants and animals allow them to survive in a particular environment;

(B) explore that some characteristics of organisms are inherited such as the number of limbs on an animal or flower color and recognize that some behaviors are learned from the environment such as animals using tools to get food; and

(C) investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, mealworms, and lady bugs.

§112.15.Science, Grade 4, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 4, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the natural environment, students know that earth materials have properties that are constantly changing due to Earth's forces. The students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including renewable and nonrenewable, and their responsibility to conserve our natural resources for future generations. They will also explore Sun, Earth, and Moon relationships. The students will recognize that our major source of energy is the Sun.

(B) Within the living environment, students know and understand that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The students will recognize that plants and animals have basic needs, and they are met through a flow of energy known as food webs. Students will explore how all living organisms go through a life cycle and that adaptations enable organisms to survive in their ecosystem.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations, following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources and reusing and recycling of materials such as paper, aluminum, glass, cans, and plastic.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well-defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions;

(B) collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps;

(C) construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data;

(D) analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured;

(E) perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results; and

(F) communicate valid, oral, and written results supported by data.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) justify explanations, arguments, or conclusions using student-generated data;

(B) draw inferences and evaluate accuracy of services and product claims found in advertisements and labels such as for toys, food, and sunscreen;

(C) represent the natural world using models such as rivers, stream tables, or fossils and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators; microscopes; cameras; computers; hand lenses; metric rulers; Celsius thermometers; mirrors; pan balances; triple beam balances; graduated cylinders; beakers; hot plates; meter sticks; compasses; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) measure, compare, and contrast physical properties of matter, including size, mass, volume, states (solid, liquid, gas), temperature, magnetism, and the ability to sink or float;

(B) predict the changes caused by heating and cooling such as ice becoming liquid water and condensation forming on the outside of a glass of ice water; and

(C) compare and contrast a variety of mixtures and solutions such as rocks in sand, sand in water, or sugar in water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among forms of energy, including sound, electricity, light, and heat/thermal;

(B) differentiate between conductors and insulators;

(C) demonstrate that electricity travels in a closed path, creating an electrical circuit, and explore an electromagnetic field; and

(D) design an experiment to test the effect of force of an object.

(7) Earth and space. The students know that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to:

(A) examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants;

(B) observe and identify slow changes to Earth's surface caused by weathering, erosion, and deposition from water, wind, and ice; and

(C) identify and classify Earth's renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals; and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas; and the importance of conservation.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify changes in living organisms that occur over the seasons;

(B) describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process; and

(C) collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, in the reflection of sunlight, and in the observable appearance of the Moon over time.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows and understands that living organisms within an ecosystem interact with one another and with their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate that most plants need sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make their own food, while animals are dependent on other organisms for food, producers, and consumers; and

(B) describe the flow of energy through food webs, beginning with the Sun, and predict how changes in the ecosystem affect the food web such as a fire in a forest.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environment. The student is expected to:

(A) explore how adaptations enable organisms to survive in their environment such as comparing birds' beaks and leaves on plants;

(B) demonstrate that some likenesses between parents and offspring are inherited, passed from generation to generation such as eye color in humans or shapes of leaves in plants. Other likenesses are learned such as table manners or reading a book and seals balancing balls on their noses; and

(C) explore, illustrate, and compare life cycles in living organisms such as butterflies, beetles, radishes, or lima beans.

§112.16.Science, Grade 5, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process."

(2) Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include patterns, cycles, systems, models, and change and constancy.

(3) The study of elementary science includes planning and safely implementing classroom and outdoor investigations using scientific processes, including inquiry methods, analyzing information, making informed decisions, and using tools to collect and record information, while addressing the major concepts and vocabulary, in the context of physical, earth, and life sciences. Districts are encouraged to facilitate classroom and outdoor investigations for at least 50% of instructional time.

(4) In Grade 5, investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations and that methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. They have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(A) Within the physical environment, students learn about the physical properties of matter, including magnetism, physical states of matter, relative density, solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate electrical and heat energy. Students explore the uses of light, thermal, electrical, and sound energies.

(B) Within the natural environment, students learn how changes occur on Earth's surface and that predictable patterns occur in the sky. Students learn that the natural world consists of resources, including nonrenewable, renewable, and alternative energy sources.

(C) Within the living environment, students learn that structure and function of organisms can improve the survival of members of a species. Students learn to differentiate between inherited traits and learned behaviors. Students learn that life cycles occur in animals and plants and that the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle occurs naturally to support the living environment.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and

(B) make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable;

(B) ask well-defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring;

(D) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence;

(E) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results;

(F) communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms; and

(G) construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) use scientific evidence to develop and evaluate scientific explanations;

(B) evaluate the accuracy of the information related to promotional materials for products and services such as nutritional labels;

(C) draw or develop a model that represents how something works or looks that cannot be seen such as how a soda dispensing machine works; and

(D) connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators; microscopes; cameras; computers; hand lenses; metric rulers; Celsius thermometers; prisms; mirrors; pan balances; triple beam balances; graduated cylinders; beakers; hot plates; meter sticks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; magnets; collecting nets; notebooks; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and

(B) use safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to:

(A) classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy;

(B) identify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale;

(C) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand; and

(D) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the uses of energy, including light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy;

(B) demonstrate that the flow of electricity in circuits requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and can produce light, heat, and sound; and

(C) demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels through one medium to another and demonstrate that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces and refracted such as the appearance of an object when observed through water.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows Earth's surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels;

(B) recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, and ice;

(C) identify alternative energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels; and

(D) identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between weather and climate;

(B) explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle; and

(C) demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky.

(9) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments. The student is expected to:

(A) observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and non-living elements;

(B) describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food web to consumers and decomposers;

(C) predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways; and

(D) identify the significance of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle to the survival of plants and animals.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals;

(B) differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle; and

(C) describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects.

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900387

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Policy Coordination

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: March 15, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.17 - 112.21

The new sections and amendment are proposed under the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4), which authorizes the SBOE to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; §28.002, which authorizes the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject of the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating textbooks and addressed on the assessment instruments; and §28.008, which authorizes the SBOE to incorporate college readiness standards and expectations approved by the commissioner of education and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board into the essential knowledge and skills identified by the board under §28.002(c).

The new sections and amendment implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.008.

§112.17.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

The provisions of §§112.18 - 112.20 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.22 - 112.24 of this subchapter.

§112.18.Science, Grade 6, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Science, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 6 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on physical science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 6 include:

(A) Scientific investigations and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy.

(i) Matter can be classified as elements, compounds, or mixtures. Students have already had experience with mixtures in Grade 5, so Grade 6 will concentrate on developing an understanding of elements and compounds. It is important that students learn the differences between elements and compounds based on observations, description of physical properties, and chemical reactions. Elements are represented by chemical symbols, while compounds are represented by chemical formulas. Subsequent grades will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(ii) Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their physical properties. The elements are divided into three groups on the Periodic Table. Each different substance usually has a different density, so density can be used as an identifying property. Therefore, calculating density aids classification of substances.

(iii) Energy resources are available on a renewable, nonrenewable, or indefinite basis. Understanding the origins and uses of these resources enables informed decision making. Students should consider the ethical/social issues surrounding Earth's natural energy resources, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of their long-term uses.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Energy occurs in two types, potential and kinetic, and can take several forms. Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. It can also be changed from one form to another. Students will investigate the relationship between force and motion using a variety of means, including calculations and measurements.

(D) Earth and space. The focus of this strand is on introducing Earth's processes. Students should develop an understanding of Earth as part of our solar system. The topics include organization of our solar system, the role of gravity, and space exploration.

(E) Organisms and environments. Students will gain an understanding of the broadest taxonomic classifications of organisms and how characteristics determine their classification. The other major topics developed in this strand include the interdependence between organisms and their environments and the levels of organization within an ecosystem.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among scientific fact, scientific hypothesis, scientific theory, and scientific law;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as a model of Earth's layers;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including journals/notebooks, beakers, Petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, hot plates, test tubes, triple beam balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows the differences between elements and compounds. The student is expected to:

(A) know that an element is a pure substance represented by chemical symbols;

(B) recognize that a limited number of the many known elements comprise the largest portion of solid Earth, living matter, oceans, and the atmosphere;

(C) differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level; and

(D) identify the formation of compounds by using the evidence of a possible chemical change such as production of a gas, change in temperature, production of a precipitate, or color change.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows matter has physical properties that can be used for classification. The student is expected to:

(A) compare metals, nonmetals, and metalloids using physical properties such as luster, conductivity, or malleability;

(B) calculate density to identify an unknown substance; and

(C) test the physical properties of minerals, including hardness, color, luster, and streak.

(7) Matter and energy. The student knows that some of Earth's energy resources are available on a nearly perpetual basis, while others can be renewed over a relatively short period of time. Some energy resources, once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable. The student is expected to:

(A) research and debate the advantages and disadvantages of using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and solar resources; and

(B) design a logical plan to manage energy resources in the home, school, or community.

(8) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows force and motion are related to potential and kinetic energy. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast potential and kinetic energy;

(B) identify and describe the changes in direction, motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by unbalanced forces;

(C) calculate average speed using distance and time measurements; and

(D) measure and graph changes in motion.

(9) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that the Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate methods of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(B) verify through investigations that thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern from warmer to cooler until all the substances attain the same temperature such as an ice cube melting; and

(C) demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical energy to light energy.

(10) Earth and space. The student understands the structure of Earth, the rock cycle, and plate tectonics. The student is expected to:

(A) build a model to illustrate the structural layers of Earth, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere;

(B) classify rocks as metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary by the processes of their formation;

(C) identify the major tectonic plates, including Eurasian, African, Indo-Australian, Pacific, North American, and South American; and

(D) describe how plate tectonics causes major geological events such as ocean basins, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.

(11) Earth and space. The student understands the organization of our solar system and the relationships among the various bodies that comprise it. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the physical properties, locations, and movements of the Sun, planets, Galilean moons, meteors, asteroids, and comets;

(B) understand that gravity is the force that governs the motion of our solar system; and

(C) describe the history and future of space exploration, including the types of equipment and transportation needed for space travel.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows all organisms are classified into Domains and Kingdoms. Organisms within these taxonomic groups share similar characteristics which allow them to interact with the living and nonliving parts of their ecosystem. The student is expected to:

(A) understand that all organisms are composed of one or more cells;

(B) recognize that the presence of a nucleus determines whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic;

(C) recognize that the broadest taxonomic classification of living organisms is divided into currently recognized Domains;

(D) identify the basic characteristics of organisms, including prokaryotic or eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular, autotrophic or heterotrophic, and mode of reproduction, that further classify them in the currently recognized Kingdoms;

(E) describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact; and

(F) diagram the levels of organization within an ecosystem, including organism, population, community, and ecosystem.

§112.19.Science, Grade 7, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 7 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on organisms and the environment. National standards in science are organized as a multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 7 include:

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Matter and energy are conserved throughout living systems. Radiant energy from the Sun drives much of the flow of energy throughout living systems due to the process of photosynthesis in organisms described as producers. Most consumers then depend on producers to meet their energy needs. Decomposers play an important role in recycling matter. Organic compounds are composed of carbon and other elements that are recycled due to chemical changes that rearrange the elements for the particular needs of that living system. Large molecules such as carbohydrates are composed of chains of smaller units such as sugars, similar to a train being composed of multiple box cars. Subsequent grade levels will learn about the differences at the molecular and atomic level.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Force, motion, and energy are observed in living systems and the environment in several ways. Interactions between muscular and skeletal systems allow the body to apply forces and transform energy both internally and externally. Force and motion can also describe the direction and growth of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism. Catastrophic events of weather systems such as hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes can shape and restructure the environment through the force and motion evident in them. Weathering, erosion, and deposition occur in environments due to the forces of gravity, wind, ice, and water.

(D) Earth and space. Earth and space phenomena can be observed in a variety of settings. Both natural events and human activities can impact Earth systems. There are characteristics of Earth and relationships to objects in our solar system that allow life to exist.

(E) Organisms and environments.

(i) Students will understand the relationship between living organisms and their environment. Different environments support different living organisms that are adapted to that region of Earth. Organisms are living systems that maintain a steady state with that environment and whose balance may be disrupted by internal and external stimuli. External stimuli include human activity or the environment. Successful organisms can reestablish a balance through different processes such as a feedback mechanism. Ecological succession can be seen on a broad or small scale.

(ii) Students learn that all organisms obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce. During both sexual and asexual reproduction, traits are passed onto the next generation. These traits are contained in genetic material that is found on genes within a chromosome from the parent. Changes in traits sometimes occur in a population over many generations. One of the ways a change can occur is through the process of natural selection. Students extend their understanding of structures in living systems from a previous focus on external structures to an understanding of internal structures and functions within living things.

(iii) All living organisms are made up of smaller units called cells. All cells use energy, get rid of wastes, and contain genetic material. Students will compare plant and animal cells and understand the internal structures within them that allow them to obtain energy, get rid of wastes, grow, and reproduce in different ways. Cells can organize into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into organ systems. Students will learn the major functions of human body systems such as the ability of the integumentary system to protect against infection, injury, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation; regulate body temperature; and remove waste.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of the instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among scientific fact, scientific hypothesis, scientific theory, and scientific law;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as human body systems and plant and animal cells;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Science investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including life science models, hand lens, stereoscopes, microscopes, beakers, Petri dishes, microscope slides, graduated cylinders, test tubes, meter sticks, metric rulers, metric tape measures, timing devices, hot plates, balances, thermometers, calculators, water test kits, computers, temperature and pH probes, collecting nets, insect traps, globes, digital cameras, journals/notebooks, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis;

(B) demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin; and

(C) diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

(6) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical and chemical properties and can undergo physical and chemical changes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify that organic compounds contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, or sulfur;

(B) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter in the digestive system; and

(C) recognize how large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules such as carbohydrates can be broken down into sugars.

(7) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship among force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) contrast situations where work is done with different amounts of force to situations where no work is done such as moving a box with a ramp and without a ramp, or standing still;

(B) relate the amount of work done during an everyday activity to energy transformations; and

(C) demonstrate and illustrate forces that affect motion in everyday life such as emergence of seedlings, turgor pressure, and geotropism.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events and human activity can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict and describe how different types of catastrophic events impact ecosystems such as floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes;

(B) analyze the effects of weathering, erosion, and deposition on the environment in ecoregions of Texas; and

(C) model the effects of human activity on groundwater and surface water in a watershed.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows components of our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the characteristics of objects in our solar system that allow life to exist such as the proximity of the Sun, presence of water, and composition of the atmosphere; and

(B) identify the accommodations, considering the characteristics of our solar system, that enabled manned space exploration.

(10) Organisms and environments. The student knows that there is a relationship between organisms and the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and describe how different environments, including microhabitats in schoolyards and biomes, support different varieties of organisms;

(B) describe how biodiversity contributes to the sustainability of an ecosystem; and

(C) observe, record, and describe the role of ecological succession such as in a microhabitat of a garden with weeds.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that populations and species demonstrate variation and inherit many of their unique traits through gradual processes over many generations. The student is expected to:

(A) examine organisms or their structures such as insects or leaves and use dichotomous keys for identification;

(B) explain variation within a population or species by comparing external features, behaviors, or physiology of organisms that enhance their survival such as migration, hibernation, or storage of food in a bulb; and

(C) identify some changes in genetic traits that have occurred over several generations through natural selection and selective breeding such as the Galapagos Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) or domestic animals.

(12) Organisms and environments. The student knows that living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and explain how internal structures of organisms are adapted to perform specific functions such as gills in fish, hollow bones in birds, or xylem in plants;

(B) identify the main functions of the systems of the human organism, including the circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular, digestive, excretory, reproductive, integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems;

(C) recognize levels of organization in plants and animals, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms;

(D) differentiate between structure and function in plant and animal cell organelles, including cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, chloroplast, and vacuole;

(E) compare the functions of a cell to the functions of organisms such as waste removal; and

(F) recognize that according to cell theory all organisms are composed of cells and cells carry on similar functions such as extracting energy from food to sustain life.

(13) Organisms and environments. The student knows that a living organism must be able to maintain balance in stable internal conditions in response to external and internal stimuli. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how organisms respond to external stimuli found in the environment such as phototropism and fight or flight; and

(B) describe and relate responses in organisms that may result from internal stimuli such as wilting in plants and fever or vomiting in animals that allow them to maintain balance.

(14) Organisms and environments. The student knows that reproduction is a characteristic of living organisms and that the instructions for traits are governed in the genetic material. The student is expected to:

(A) define heredity as the passage of genetic instructions from one generation to the next generation;

(B) compare the results of uniform or diverse offspring from sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction; and

(C) recognize that inherited traits of individuals are governed in the genetic material found in the genes within chromosomes.

§112.20.Science, Grade 8, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(2) Scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power that have been tested over a wide variety of conditions become theories. Scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple, independent researchers. Students should know that scientific theories, unlike hypotheses, are well-established and highly reliable, but they may still be subject to change as new information and technologies are developed. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical/social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(3) Grade 8 science is interdisciplinary in nature; however, much of the content focus is on earth and space science. National standards in science are organized as multi-grade blocks such as Grades 5-8 rather than individual grade levels. In order to follow the grade level format used in Texas, the various national standards are found among Grades 6, 7, and 8. Recurring themes are pervasive in sciences, mathematics, and technology. These ideas transcend disciplinary boundaries and include change and constancy, patterns, cycles, systems, models, and scale.

(4) The strands for Grade 8 include:

(A) Scientific investigation and reasoning.

(i) To develop a rich knowledge of science and the natural world, students must become familiar with different modes of scientific inquiry, rules of evidence, ways of formulating questions, ways of proposing explanations, and the diverse ways scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence derived from their work.

(ii) Scientific investigations are conducted for different reasons. All investigations require a research question, careful observations, data gathering, and analysis of the data to identify the patterns that will explain the findings. Descriptive investigations are used to explore new phenomena such as conducting surveys of organisms or measuring the abiotic components in a given habitat. Descriptive statistics include frequency, range, mean, median, and mode. A hypothesis is not required in a descriptive investigation. On the other hand, when conditions can be controlled in order to focus on a single variable, experimental research design is used to determine causation. Students should experience both types of investigations and understand that different scientific research questions require different research designs.

(iii) Scientific investigations are used to learn about the natural world. Students should understand that certain types of questions can be answered by investigations, and the methods, models, and conclusions built from these investigations change as new observations are made. Models of objects and events are tools for understanding the natural world and can show how systems work. Models have limitations and based on new discoveries are constantly being modified to more closely reflect the natural world.

(B) Matter and energy. Students recognize that matter is composed of atoms. Students examine information on the Periodic Table to recognize that elements are grouped into families. In addition, students understand the basic concept of conservation of mass. Lab activities will allow students to demonstrate evidence of chemical reactions. They will use chemical formulas and balanced equations to show chemical reactions and the formation of new substances.

(C) Force, motion, and energy. Students experiment with the relationship between forces and motion through the study of Newton's three laws. Students learn how these forces relate to geologic processes and astronomical phenomena. In addition, students recognize that these laws are evident in everyday objects and activities. Mathematics is used to calculate speed using distance and time measurements.

(D) Earth and space. Students identify the role of natural events in altering Earth systems. Cycles within Sun, Earth, and Moon systems are studied as students learn about seasons, tides, and lunar phases. Students learn that stars and galaxies are part of the universe and that distances in space are measured by using light waves. In addition, students use data to research scientific theories of the origin of the universe. Students will illustrate how Earth features change over time by plate tectonics. They will interpret land and erosional features on topographic maps. Students learn how interactions in solar, weather, and ocean systems create changes in weather patterns and climate.

(E) Organisms and environments. In studies of living systems, students explore the interdependence between these systems. Interactions between organisms in ecosystems, including producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships, are investigated in aquatic and terrestrial systems. Students describe how biotic and abiotic factors affect the number of organisms and populations present in an ecosystem. In addition, students explore how organisms and their populations respond to short- and long-term environmental changes, including those caused by human activities.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations following safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards; and

(B) practice appropriate use and conservation of resources, including disposal, reuse, or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(B) design and implement experimental investigations by making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and using appropriate equipment and technology;

(C) collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawings, writing, and graphic organizers;

(D) construct tables and graphs, using repeated trials and means, to organize data and identify patterns; and

(E) analyze data to formulate reasonable explanations, communicate valid conclusions supported by the data, and predict trends.

(3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions and knows the contributions of relevant scientists. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among scientific fact, scientific hypothesis, scientific theory, and scientific law;

(B) use models to represent aspects of the natural world such as an atom, a molecule, space, or a geologic feature;

(C) identify advantages and limitations of models such as size, scale, properties, and materials; and

(D) relate the impact of research on scientific thought and society, including the history of science and contributions of scientists as related to the content.

(4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and safety equipment to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate tools to collect, record, and analyze information, including lab journals/notebooks, beakers, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, anemometers, psychrometers, hot plates, test tubes, spring scales, balances, microscopes, thermometers, calculators, computers, spectroscopes, timing devices, and other equipment as needed to teach the curriculum; and

(B) use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher.

(5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms and has chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the structure of atoms, including the masses, electrical charges, and locations, of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud;

(B) identify that protons determine an element's identity and valence electrons determine its chemical properties, including reactivity;

(C) interpret the arrangement of the Periodic Table, including groups and periods, to explain how properties are used to classify elements;

(D) recognize that chemical formulas are used to identify substances and determine the number of atoms of each element in chemical formulas containing subscripts;

(E) investigate how evidence of chemical reactions indicate that new substances with different properties are formed; and

(F) recognize whether a chemical equation containing coefficients is balanced or not and how that relates to the law of conservation of mass.

(6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion;

(B) differentiate between speed, velocity, and acceleration; and

(C) investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth's tectonic activities, and rocket launches.

(7) Earth and space. The student knows the effects resulting from cyclical movements of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The student is expected to:

(A) model and illustrate how the tilted Earth rotates on its axis, causing day and night, and revolves around the Sun causing changes in seasons;

(B) demonstrate and predict the sequence of events in the lunar cycle; and

(C) relate the lunar cycle to its effect on ocean tides.

(8) Earth and space. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) describe components of the universe, including stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and use models such as the Herztsprung-Russell diagram for classification;

(B) recognize that the Sun is a medium-sized star near the edge of a disc-shaped galaxy of stars and that the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star;

(C) explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the universe;

(D) model and describe how light years are used to measure distances and sizes in the universe; and

(E) research how scientific data are used as evidence to develop scientific theories to describe the origin of the universe.

(9) Earth and space. The student knows that natural events can impact Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the historical development of evidence that supports plate tectonic theory;

(B) relate plate tectonics to the formation of crustal features; and

(C) interpret topographic maps and satellite views to identify land and erosional features and predict how these features may be reshaped by weathering.

(10) Earth and space. The student knows that climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and weather systems. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents;

(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather using weather maps that show high and low pressures and fronts; and

(C) identify the role of the oceans in the formation of weather systems such as hurricanes.

(11) Organisms and environments. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems and the environment and that human activities can affect these systems. The student is expected to:

(A) describe producer/consumer, predator/prey, and parasite/host relationships as they occur in food webs within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems;

(B) investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors such as quantity of light, water, range of temperatures, or soil composition;

(C) explore how short- and long-term environmental changes affect organisms and traits in subsequent populations; and

(D) recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial reefs, or use of resources have modified these systems.

§112.21.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, Middle School.

The provisions of §§112.22 - 112.24 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.18 - 112.20 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year [ implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.28(g) and §75.44 of this title (relating to Science)].

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900388

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Policy Coordination

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: March 15, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§112.31 - 112.39, 112.41

The new sections and amendment are proposed under the Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4), which authorizes the SBOE to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; §28.002, which authorizes the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject of the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating textbooks and addressed on the assessment instruments; §28.008, which authorizes the SBOE to incorporate college readiness standards and expectations approved by the commissioner of education and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board into the essential knowledge and skills identified by the board under §28.002(c); and §28.025, which authorizes the SBOE to by rule determine curriculum requirements for the minimum, recommended, and advanced high school programs that are consistent with the required curriculum under §28.002.

The new sections and amendment implement the Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, 28.008, and 28.025.

§112.31.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

The provisions of §§112.32 - 112.39 of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2010-2011 school year and at that time shall supersede §§112.42 - 112.49 of this subchapter.

§112.32.Aquatic Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisite: one unit of high school Biology. Suggested prerequisite: Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Aquatic Science. In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school. Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including chemical, electrical, and fire safety, and safe handling of live and preserved organisms; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology;

(F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;

(G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and

(J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from written text;

(C) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(D) evaluate the impact of research and technology on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and

(F) explore and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. Students know that aquatic environments are the product of Earth systems interactions. The student is expected to:

(A) identify key features and characteristics of atmospheric, geological, hydrological, and biological systems as they relate to aquatic environments;

(B) apply systems thinking to the examination of aquatic environments, including positive and negative feedback cycles; and

(C) collect and evaluate global environmental data using technology such as maps, visualizations, satellite data, Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), weather balloons, buoys, etc.

(5) Science concepts. The student conducts long-term studies on local aquatic environments. Local natural environments are to be preferred over artificial or virtual environments. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate data over a period of time from an established aquatic environment documenting seasonal changes and the behavior of organisms;

(B) collect baseline quantitative data, including pH, salinity, temperature, mineral content, nitrogen compounds, and turbidity from an aquatic environment;

(C) analyze interrelationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in a local aquatic ecosystem; and

(D) identify the interdependence of organisms in an aquatic environment such as in a pond, river, lake, ocean, or aquifer and the biosphere.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the role of cycles in an aquatic environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the role of carbon, nitrogen, water, and nutrient cycles in an aquatic environment, including upwellings and turnovers; and

(B) examine the interrelationships between aquatic systems and climate and weather, including El Niño and La Niña, currents, and hurricanes.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the origin and use of water in a watershed. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed, including rainfall, groundwater, and surface water;

(B) identify factors that contribute to how water flows through a watershed; and

(C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate basic principles of fluid dynamics, including hydrostatic pressure, density, salinity, and buoyancy;

(B) identify interrelationships between ocean currents, climates, and geologic features; and

(C) describe and explain fluid dynamics in an upwelling and lake turnover.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the types and components of aquatic ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate among freshwater, brackish, and saltwater ecosystems;

(B) identify the major properties and components of different marine and freshwater life zones; and

(C) identify biological, chemical, geological, and physical components of an aquatic life zone as they relate to the organisms in it.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows environmental adaptations of aquatic organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) classify different aquatic organisms using tools such as dichotomous keys;

(B) compare and describe how adaptations allow an organism to exist within an aquatic environment; and

(C) compare differences in adaptations of aquatic organisms to fresh water and marine environments.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows about the interdependence and interactions that occur in aquatic environments. The student is expected to:

(A) identify how energy flows and matter cycles through both fresh water and salt water aquatic systems, including food webs, chains, and pyramids; and

(B) evaluate the factors affecting aquatic population cycles.

(12) Science concepts. The student understands how human activities impact aquatic environments. The student is expected to:

(A) predict effects of chemical, organic, physical, and thermal changes from humans on the living and nonliving components of an aquatic ecosystem;

(B) analyze the cumulative impact of human population growth on an aquatic system;

(C) investigate the role of humans in unbalanced systems such as invasive species, fish farming, cultural eutrophication, or red tides;

(D) analyze and discuss how human activities such as fishing, transportation, dams, and recreation influence aquatic environments; and

(E) understand the impact of various laws and policies such as The Endangered Species Act, right of capture laws, or Clean Water Act on aquatic systems.

§112.33.Astronomy, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Astronomy. In Astronomy, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study the following topics: astronomy in civilization, patterns and objects in the sky, our place in space, the moon, reasons for the seasons, planets, the sun, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and space exploration. Students who successfully complete Astronomy will acquire knowledge within a conceptual framework, conduct observations of the sky, work collaboratively, and develop critical-thinking skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data, including making new revised hypotheses when appropriate;

(H) communicate valid conclusions in writing, oral presentations, and through collaborative projects; and

(I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants, computers, and software.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(D) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers.

(4) Science concepts. The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the use of astronomy in ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Mayans, Aztecs, Europeans, and the native Americans;

(B) research and describe the contributions of scientists to our changing understanding of astronomy, including Ptolemy, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Hubble, and the contribution of women astronomers, including Maria Mitchell and Henrietta Swan Leavitt;

(C) describe and explain the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and the role of constellations in ancient and modern navigation; and

(D) explain the contributions of modern astronomy to today's society, including the identification of potential asteroid/comet impact hazards and the Sun's effects on communication, navigation, and high-tech devices.

(5) Science concepts. The student develops a familiarity with the sky. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record the apparent movement of the Sun and Moon during the day;

(B) observe and record the apparent movement of the Moon, planets, and stars in the nighttime sky; and

(C) recognize and identify constellations such as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Cassiopeia, and constellations of the zodiac.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows our place in space. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system through the use of data and modeling;

(B) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of objects in the solar system such as the Sun and planets through the use of data and modeling;

(C) examine the scale, size, and distance of the stars, Milky Way, and other galaxies through the use of data and modeling;

(D) relate apparent versus absolute magnitude to the distances of celestial objects; and

(E) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy, including Astronomical Units and light years.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to:

(A) observe and record data about lunar phases and use that information to model the Sun, Earth, and Moon system;

(B) illustrate the cause of lunar phases by showing positions of the Moon relative to Earth and the Sun for each phase, including new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent;

(C) identify and differentiate the causes of lunar and solar eclipses, including differentiating between lunar phases and eclipses; and

(D) identify the effects of the Moon on tides.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows the reasons for the seasons. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis;

(B) explain how latitudinal position affects the length of day and night throughout the year;

(C) recognize that the angle of incidence of sunlight determines the concentration of solar energy received on Earth at a particular location; and

(D) examine the relationship of the seasons to equinoxes, solstices, the tropics, and the equator.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets;

(B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, natural satellites, and geological activity;

(C) relate the role of Newton's law of universal gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of natural and artificial satellites around the planets; and

(D) explore the origins and significance of small solar system bodies, including asteroids, comets, and Kuiper belt objects.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the Sun;

(B) distinguish between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, and identify the source of energy within the Sun as nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium;

(C) describe the eleven-year solar cycle and the significance of sunspots; and

(D) analyze solar magnetic storm activity, including coronal mass ejections, prominences, flares, and sunspots.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the characteristics of main sequence stars, including surface temperature, age, relative size, and composition;

(B) characterize star formation in stellar nurseries from giant molecular clouds, to protostars, to the development of main sequence stars;

(C) evaluate the relationship between mass and fusion on the dying process and properties of stars;

(D) differentiate among the end states of stars, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes;

(E) compare how the mass and gravity of a main sequence star will determine its end state as a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole;

(F) relate the use of spectroscopy in obtaining physical data on celestial objects such as temperature, chemical composition, and relative motion; and

(G) use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to plot and examine the life cycle of stars from birth to death.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows the variety and properties of galaxies. The student is expected to:

(A) describe characteristics of galaxies;

(B) recognize the type, structure, and components of our Milky Way galaxy and location of our solar system within it; and

(C) compare and contrast the different types of galaxies, including spiral, elliptical, irregular, and dwarf.

(13) Science concepts. The student knows the scientific theories of cosmology. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the Big Bang Theory, including red shift, cosmic microwave background radiation, and other supporting evidence;

(B) research and describe current theories of the evolution of the universe, including estimates for the age of the universe; and

(C) research and describe scientific hypotheses of the fate of the universe, including open and closed universes and the role of dark matter and dark energy.

(14) Science concepts. The student recognizes the benefits and challenges of space exploration to the study of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain the contributions of human space flight and future plans and challenges;

(B) recognize the advancement of knowledge in astronomy through robotic space flight;

(C) analyze the importance of ground-based technology in astronomical studies;

(D) recognize the importance of space telescopes to the collection of astronomical data across the electromagnetic spectrum; and

(E) demonstrate an awareness of new developments and discoveries in astronomy.

§112.34.Biology, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, or 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Biology. In Biology, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students in Biology study a variety of topics that include: structures and functions of cells and viruses; growth and development of organisms; cells, tissues, and organs; nucleic acids and genetics; biological evolution; taxonomy; metabolism and energy transfers in living organisms; living systems; homeostasis; and ecosystems and the environment.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas or science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools such as calculators, spreadsheet software, data-collecting probes, computers, standard laboratory glassware, microscopes, various prepared slides, stereoscopes, metric rulers, electronic balances, gel electrophoresis apparatuses, micropipettors, hand lenses, Celsius thermometers, hot plates, lab notebooks or journals, timing devices, cameras, Petri dishes, lab incubators, dissection equipment, meter sticks, and models, diagrams, or samples of biological specimens or structures;

(G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) evaluate promotional claims that relate to biological issues such as product labeling and advertisements;

(C) evaluate the impact of scientific research on society and the environment;

(D) evaluate models according to their limitations in representing biological objects or events; and

(E) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;

(B) investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules; and

(C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and the importance of cell differentiation. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the stages of the cell cycle, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and mitosis, and the importance of the cell cycle to the growth of organisms;

(B) examine specialized cells, including roots, stems, and leaves of plants; and animal cells such as blood, muscle, and epithelium;

(C) describe the roles of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and environmental factors in cell differentiation; and

(D) recognize that disruptions of the cell cycle lead to diseases such as cancer.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the mechanisms of genetics, including the role of nucleic acids and the principles of Mendelian Genetics. The student is expected to:

(A) identify components of DNA, and describe how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA;

(B) recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms;

(C) explain the purpose and process of transcription and translation using models of DNA and RNA;

(D) recognize that gene expression is a regulated process;

(E) identify and illustrate changes in DNA and evaluate the significance of these changes;

(F) predict possible outcomes of various genetic combinations such as monohybrid crosses, dihybrid crosses and non-Mendelian inheritance;

(G) recognize the significance of meiosis to sexual reproduction; and

(H) describe how techniques such as DNA fingerprinting, genetic modifications, and chromosomal analysis are used to study the genomes of organisms.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate how evidence of common ancestry among groups is provided by the fossil record, biogeography, and homologies, including anatomical, molecular, and developmental;

(B) analyze and evaluate the sufficiency or insufficiency of common ancestry to explain the sudden appearance, stasis, and sequential nature of groups in the fossil record;

(C) analyze and evaluate how natural selection produces change in populations, not individuals;

(D) analyze and evaluate how the elements of natural selection, including inherited variation, the potential of a population to produce more offspring than can survive, and a finite supply of environmental resources, result in differential reproductive success;

(E) analyze and evaluate the relationship of natural selection to adaptation and to the development of diversity in and among species; and

(F) analyze and evaluate the effects of other evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, and recombination.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. The student is expected to:

(A) define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standardized taxonomic system to the scientific community;

(B) categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences shared among groups; and

(C) compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;

(B) compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy and matter; and

(C) identify and investigate the role of enzymes.

(10) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness in animals;

(B) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport, reproduction, and response in plants; and

(C) analyze the levels of organization in biological systems and relate the levels to each other and to the whole system.

(11) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the role of internal feedback mechanisms in the maintenance of homeostasis;

(B) investigate and analyze how organisms, populations, and communities respond to external factors;

(C) summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems; and

(D) describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity.

(12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) interpret relationships, including predation, parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, and competition among organisms;

(B) compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems;

(C) analyze the flow of matter and energy through trophic levels using various models, including food chains, food webs, and ecological pyramids;

(D) recognize that long-term survival of species is dependent on changing resource bases that are limited;

(E) describe the flow of matter through the carbon and nitrogen cycles and explain the consequences of disrupting these cycles; and

(F) describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability.

§112.35.Chemistry, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: one unit of high school science and Algebra I. Suggested prerequisite: completion of or concurrent enrollment in a second year of math. This course is recommended for students in Grade 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Chemistry. In Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include characteristics of matter, use of the Periodic Table, development of atomic theory and chemical bonding, chemical stoichiometry, gas laws, solution chemistry, thermochemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Students will investigate how chemistry is an integral part of our daily lives.

(2) Nature of Science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during all investigations; including use of safety showers, eyewash fountains, safety goggles, and fire extinguishers;

(B) know specific hazards of chemical substances such as flammability, corrosiveness, and radioactivity as summarized on the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS); and

(C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology, including graphing calculators, computers and probes, sufficient scientific glassware such as beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, graduated cylinders, volumetric flasks, safety goggles, and burettes, electronic balances, and an adequate supply of consumable chemicals;

(F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision;

(G) express and manipulate chemical quantities using scientific conventions and mathematical procedures, including dimensional analysis, scientific notation, and significant figures;

(H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing.

(B) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe the connection between chemistry and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;

(B) identify extensive and intensive properties;

(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape, and volume; and

(D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties.

(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical development of the Periodic Table;

(B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases, and transition metals; and

(C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:

(A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom;

(B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light;

(C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light;

(D) use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element; and

(E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to:

(A) name ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases, using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature rules;

(B) write the chemical formulas of common polyatomic ions, ionic compounds containing main group or transition metals, covalent compounds, acids, and bases;

(C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds;

(D) describe the nature of metallic bonding and apply the theory to explain metallic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, malleability, and ductility; and

(E) predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory.

(8) Science concepts. The student can quantify the changes that occur during chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) define and use the concept of a mole;

(B) use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample of material;

(C) calculate percent composition and empirical and molecular formulas;

(D) use the law of conservation of mass to write and balance chemical equations; and

(E) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass relationships between reactants and products, calculation of limiting reagents, and percent yield.

(9) Science concepts. The student understands the principles of ideal gas behavior, kinetic molecular theory, and the conditions that influence the behavior of gases. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate the relations between volume, pressure, number of moles, and temperature for an ideal gas as described by Boyle's law, Charles' law, Avogadro's law, Dalton's law of partial pressure, and the ideal gas law;

(B) perform stoichiometric calculations, including determination of mass and volume relationships between reactants and products for reactions involving gases; and

(C) describe the postulates of kinetic molecular theory.

(10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems;

(B) develop and use general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions;

(C) calculate the concentration of solutions in units of molarity;

(D) use molarity to calculate the dilutions of solutions;

(E) distinguish between types of solutions such as electrolytes and nonelectrolytes and unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions;

(F) investigate factors that influence solubilities and rates of dissolution such as temperature, agitation, and surface area;

(G) define acids and bases and distinguish between Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowery definitions and predict products in acid base reactions that form water;

(H) understand and differentiate among acid-base reactions, precipitation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions;

(I) define pH and use the hydrogen or hydroxide ion concentrations to calculate the pH of a solution; and

(J) distinguish between degrees of dissociation for strong and weak acids and bases.

(11) Science concepts. The student understands the energy changes that occur in chemical reactions. The student is expected to:

(A) understand energy and its forms, including kinetic, potential, chemical, and thermal energies;

(B) understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat transfer;

(C) use thermochemical equations to calculate energy changes that occur in chemical reactions and classify reactions as exothermic or endothermic;

(D) perform calculations involving heat, mass, temperature change, and specific heat; and

(E) use calorimetry to calculate the heat of a chemical process.

(12) Science concepts. The student understands the basic processes of nuclear chemistry. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation;

(B) describe radioactive decay process in terms of balanced nuclear equations; and

(C) compare fission and fusion reactions.

§112.36.Earth and Space Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Required prerequisites: three units of science, one of which may be taken concurrently, and three units of mathematics, one of which may be taken concurrently. This course is recommended for students in Grade 12 but may be taken by students in Grade 11.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Earth and Space Science (ESS). ESS is a capstone course designed to build on students' prior scientific and academic knowledge and skills to develop understanding of Earth's system in space and time.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) ESS themes. An Earth systems approach to the themes of Earth in space and time, solid Earth, and fluid Earth defined the selection and development of the concepts described in this paragraph.

(A) Earth in space and time. Earth has a long, complex, and dynamic history. Advances in technologies continue to further our understanding of the origin, evolution, and properties of Earth and planetary systems within a chronological framework. The origin and distribution of resources that sustain life on Earth are the result of interactions among Earth's subsystems over billions of years.

(B) Solid Earth. The geosphere is a collection of complex, interacting, dynamic subsystems linking Earth's interior to its surface. The geosphere is composed of materials that move between subsystems at various rates driven by the uneven distribution of thermal energy. These dynamic processes are responsible for the origin and distribution of resources as well as geologic hazards that impact society.

(C) Fluid Earth. The fluid Earth consists of the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere subsystems. These subsystems interact with the biosphere and geosphere resulting in complex biogeochemical and geochemical cycles. The global ocean is the thermal energy reservoir for surface processes and, through interactions with the atmosphere, influences climate. Understanding these interactions and cycles over time has implications for life on Earth.

(6) Earth and space science strands. ESS has three strands used throughout each of the three themes: systems, energy, and relevance.

(A) Systems. A system is a collection of interacting physical, chemical, and biological processes that involves the flow of matter and energy on different temporal and spatial scales. Earth's system is composed of interdependent and interacting subsystems of the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere within a larger planetary and stellar system. Change and constancy occur in Earth's system and can be observed, measured as patterns and cycles, and described or presented in models used to predict how Earth's system changes over time.

(B) Energy. The uneven distribution of Earth's internal and external thermal energy is the driving force for complex, dynamic, and continuous interactions and cycles in Earth's subsystems. These interactions are responsible for the movement of matter within and between the subsystems resulting in, for example, plate motions and ocean-atmosphere circulation.

(C) Relevance. The interacting components of Earth's system change by both natural and human-influenced processes. Natural processes include hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, meteorite impacts, and climate change. Some human-influenced processes such as pollution and nonsustainable use of Earth's natural resources may damage Earth's system. Examples include climate change, soil erosion, air and water pollution, and biodiversity loss. The time scale of these changes and their impact on human society must be understood to make wise decisions concerning the use of the land, water, air, and natural resources. Proper stewardship of Earth will prevent unnecessary degradation and destruction of Earth's subsystems and diminish detrimental impacts to individuals and society.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts laboratory and field investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations;

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials; and

(C) use the school's technology and information systems in a wise and ethical manner.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures, including computers and web-based computer applications;

(F) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures as appropriate such as satellite imagery and other remote sensing data, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), scientific probes, microscopes, telescopes, modern video and image libraries, weather stations, fossil and rock kits, bar magnets, coiled springs, wave simulators, tectonic plate models, and planetary globes;

(G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(H) use mathematical procedures such as algebra, statistics, scientific notation, and significant figures to analyze data using the International System (SI) units; and

(I) communicate valid conclusions supported by data using several formats such as technical reports, lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, presentations, and technical posters.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) analyze, evaluate, communicate, and apply scientific information extracted from written text such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and public policy;

(D) explore careers and collaboration among scientists in Earth and space sciences; and

(E) learn and understand the contributions of scientists to the historical development of Earth and space sciences.

(4) Earth in space and time. The student knows how Earth-based and space-based astronomical observations reveal differing theories about the structure, scale, composition, origin, and history of the universe. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the evidence concerning the Big Bang model such as red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation and the concept of an expanding universe that originated about 14 billion years ago;

(B) explain how the Sun and other stars transform matter into energy through nuclear fusion; and

(C) investigate the process by which a supernova can lead to the formation of successive generation stars and planets.

(5) Earth in space and time. The student understands the solar nebular accretionary disk model. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how gravitational condensation of solar nebular gas and dust can lead to the accretion of planetesimals and protoplanets;

(B) investigate sources of heat, including kinetic heat of impact accretion, gravitational compression, and radioactive decay, which are thought to allow protoplanet differentiation into layers;

(C) contrast the characteristics of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids and their positions in the solar system, including the orbital regions of the terrestrial planets, the asteroid belt, gas giants, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud;

(D) explore the historical and current hypotheses for the origin of the Moon, including the collision of Earth with a Mars-sized planetesimal;

(E) compare terrestrial planets to gas-giant planets in the solar system, including structure, composition, size, density, orbit, surface features, tectonic activity, temperature, and suitability for life; and

(F) compare extra-solar planets with planets in our solar system and describe how such planets are detected.

(6) Earth in space and time. The student knows the evidence for how Earth's atmospheres, hydrosphere, and geosphere formed and changed through time. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the changes of Earth's atmosphere through time from the original hydrogen-helium atmosphere, the carbon dioxide-water vapor-methane atmosphere, and the current nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere;

(B) evaluate the role of volcanic outgassing and impact of water-bearing comets in developing Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere;

(C) investigate how the formation of atmospheric oxygen and the ozone layer impacted the formation of the geosphere and biosphere; and

(D) evaluate the evidence that Earth's cooling led to tectonic activity, resulting in continents and ocean basins.

(7) Earth in space and time. The student knows that scientific dating methods of fossils and rock sequences are used to construct a chronology of Earth's history expressed in the geologic time scale. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate relative dating methods using original horizontality, rock superposition, lateral continuity, cross-cutting relationships, unconformities, index fossils, and biozones based on fossil succession to determine chronological order;

(B) apply radiometric dating methods that can be used to calculate the ages of igneous rocks from Earth and the Moon and meteorites; and

(C) understand how multiple dating methods are used to construct the geologic time scale, which represents Earth's approximate 4.6-billion-year history.

(8) Earth in space and time. The student knows that fossils provide evidence for geological and biological evolution. Students are expected to:

(A) evaluate a variety of fossil types, proposed transitional fossils, fossil lineages, and significant fossil deposits and assess the arguments for and against universal common descent in light of this fossil evidence;

(B) explain how sedimentation, fossilization, and speciation affect the degree of completeness of the fossil record; and

(C) evaluate the significance of the terminal Permian and Cretaceous mass extinction events, including adaptive radiations of organisms after the events.

(9) Solid Earth. The student knows Earth's interior is differentiated chemically, physically, and thermally. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate heat transfer through Earth's subsystems by radiation, convection, and conduction and include its role in plate tectonics, volcanism, ocean circulation, weather, and climate;

(B) examine the chemical, physical, and thermal structure of Earth's crust, mantle, and core, including the lithosphere and asthenosphere;

(C) explain how scientists use geophysical methods such as seismic wave analysis, gravity, and magnetism to interpret Earth's structure; and

(D) describe the formation and structure of Earth's magnetic field, including its interaction with charged solar particles to form the Van Allen belts and auroras.

(10) Solid Earth. The student knows that plate tectonics is the global mechanism for major geologic processes and that heat transfer, governed by the principles of thermodynamics, is the driving force. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate how new conceptual interpretations of data and innovative geophysical technologies led to the current theory of plate tectonics;

(B) describe how heat and rock composition affect density within Earth's interior and how density influences the development and motion of Earth's tectonic plates;

(C) explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic processes and features, including sea floor spreading, ocean ridges and rift valleys, subduction zones, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, hot spots, and hydrothermal vents;

(D) calculate the motion history of tectonic plates using equations relating rate, time, and distance to predict future motions, locations, and resulting geologic features;

(E) distinguish the location, type, and relative motion of convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries using evidence from the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes; and

(F) evaluate the role of plate tectonics with respect to long-term global changes in Earth's subsystems such as continental buildup, glaciation, sea level fluctuations, mass extinctions, and climate change.

(11) Solid Earth. The student knows that the geosphere continuously changes over a range of time scales involving dynamic and complex interactions among Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:

(A) compare the roles of erosion and deposition through the actions of water, wind, ice, gravity, and igneous activity by lava in constantly reshaping Earth's surface;

(B) explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic surface processes and features, including folds, faults, sedimentary basin formation, mountain building, and continental accretion;

(C) analyze changes in continental plate configurations such as Pangaea and their impact on the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere through time;

(D) interpret Earth surface features using a variety of methods such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, and topographic and geologic maps using appropriate technologies; and

(E) evaluate the impact of changes in Earth's subsystems on humans such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, flooding, and storm surges and the impact of humans on Earth's subsystems such as population growth, fossil fuel burning, and use of fresh water.

(12) Solid Earth. The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate how the use of energy, water, mineral, and rock resources affects Earth's subsystems;

(B) describe the formation of fossil fuels, including petroleum and coal;

(C) discriminate between renewable and nonrenewable resources based upon rate of formation and use;

(D) analyze the economics of resources from discovery to disposal, including technological advances, resource type, concentration and location, waste disposal and recycling, and environmental costs; and

(E) explore careers that involve the exploration, extraction, production, use, and disposal of Earth's resources.

(13) Fluid Earth. The student knows that the fluid Earth is composed of the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere subsystems that interact on various time scales with the biosphere and geosphere. The student is expected to:

(A) quantify the components and fluxes within the hydrosphere such as changes in polar ice caps and glaciers, salt water incursions, and groundwater levels in response to precipitation events or excessive pumping;

(B) analyze how global ocean circulation is the result of wind, tides, the Coriolis effect, water density differences, and the shape of the ocean basins;

(C) analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature trends over the past 150 years;

(D) discuss mechanisms and causes such as selective absorbers, major volcanic eruptions, solar luminance, giant meteorite impacts, and human activities that result in significant changes in Earth's climate;

(E) investigate the causes and history of eustatic sea-level changes that result in transgressive and regressive sedimentary sequences; and

(F) discuss scientific hypotheses for the origin of life by abiotic chemical processes in an aqueous environment through complex geochemical cycles.

(14) Fluid Earth. The student knows that Earth's global ocean stores solar energy and is a major driving force for weather and climate through complex atmospheric interactions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the uneven distribution of solar energy on Earth's surface, including differences in atmospheric transparency, surface albedo, Earth's tilt, duration of insolation, and differences in atmospheric and surface absorption of energy;

(B) investigate how the atmosphere is heated from Earth's surface due to absorption of solar energy, which is re-radiated as thermal energy and trapped by selective absorbers; and

(C) explain how thermal energy transfer between the ocean and atmosphere drives surface currents, thermohaline currents, and evaporation that influence climate.

(15) Fluid Earth. The student knows that interactions among Earth's five subsystems influence climate and resource availability, which affect Earth's habitability. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how changing surface-ocean conditions, including El Niño-Southern Oscillation, affect global weather and climate patterns;

(B) investigate evidence such as ice cores, glacial striations, and fossils for climate variability and its use in developing computer models to explain present and predict future climates;

(C) quantify the dynamics of surface and groundwater movement such as recharge, discharge, evapotranspiration, storage, residence time, and sustainability;

(D) explain the global carbon cycle, including how carbon exists in different forms within the five subsystems and how these forms affect life; and

(E) analyze recent global ocean temperature data to predict the consequences of changing ocean temperature on evaporation, sea level, algal growth, coral bleaching, hurricane intensity, and biodiversity.

§112.37.Environmental Systems, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Suggested prerequisite: one unit high school life science and one unit of high school physical science. This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Environmental Systems. In Environmental Systems, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: biotic and abiotic factors in habitats, ecosystems and biomes, interrelationships among resources and an environmental system, sources and flow of energy through an environmental system, relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems, and changes in environments.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts hands-on laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations, including appropriate first aid responses to accidents that could occur in the field such as insect stings, animal bites, overheating, sprains, and breaks; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) follow or plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range;

(G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including meter sticks, rulers, pipettes, graduated cylinders, triple beam balances, timing devices, pH meters or probes, thermometers, calculators, computers, Internet access, turbidity testing devices, hand magnifiers, work and disposable gloves, compasses, first aid kits, binoculars, field guides, water quality test kits or probes, soil test kits or probes, 100-foot appraiser's tapes, tarps, shovels, trowels, screens, buckets, and rock and mineral samples;

(H) use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as air quality testing devices, cameras, flow meters, Global Positioning System (GPS) units, Geographic Information System (GIS) software, computer models, densiometers, clinometers, and field journals;

(I) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data;

(J) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and

(K) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from written text;

(C) make responsible choices in selecting everyday products and services using scientific information;

(D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(E) describe the connection between environmental science and future careers; and

(F) research and describe the history of environmental science and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows the relationships of biotic and abiotic factors within habitats, ecosystems, and biomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify native plants and animals using a dichotomous key;

(B) assess the role of native plants and animals within a local ecosystem and compare them to plants and animals in ecosystems within four other biomes;

(C) diagram abiotic cycles, including the rock, hydrologic, carbon, and nitrogen cycles;

(D) make observations and compile data about fluctuations in abiotic cycles and evaluate the effects of abiotic factors on local ecosystems and local biomes;

(E) measure the concentration of solute, solvent, and solubility of dissolved substances such as dissolved oxygen, chlorides, and nitrates and describe their impact on an ecosystem;

(F) predict how the introduction or removal of an invasive species may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem;

(G) predict how species extinction may alter the food chain and affect existing populations in an ecosystem; and

(H) research and explain the causes of species diversity and predict changes that may occur in an ecosystem if species and genetic diversity is increased or reduced.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the interrelationships among the resources within the local environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) summarize methods of land use and management and describe its effects on land fertility;

(B) identify source, use, quality, management, and conservation of water;

(C) document the use and conservation of both renewable and non-renewable resources as they pertain to sustainability;

(D) identify renewable and non-renewable resources that must come from outside an ecosystem such as food, water, lumber, and energy;

(E) analyze and evaluate the economic significance and interdependence of resources within the environmental system; and

(F) evaluate the impact of waste management methods such as reduction, reuse, recycling, and composting on resource availability.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows the sources and flow of energy through an environmental system. The student is expected to:

(A) define and identify the components of the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere and the interactions among them;

(B) describe and compare renewable and non-renewable energy derived from natural and alternative sources such as oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, and wind;

(C) explain the flow of energy in an ecosystem, including conduction, convection, and radiation;

(D) investigate and explain the effects of energy transformations in terms of the laws of thermodynamics within an ecosystem; and

(E) investigate and identify energy interactions in an ecosystem.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the relationship between carrying capacity and changes in populations and ecosystems. The student is expected to:

(A) relate carrying capacity to population dynamics;

(B) calculate birth rates and exponential growth of populations;

(C) analyze and predict the effects of non-renewable resource depletion; and

(D) analyze and make predictions about the impact on populations of geographic locales due to diseases, birth and death rates, urbanization, and natural events such as migration and seasonal changes.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows that environments change naturally. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and describe the effects on areas impacted by natural events such as tectonic movement, volcanic events, fires, tornadoes, hurricanes, flooding, tsunamis, and population growth;

(B) explain how regional changes in the environment may have a global effect;

(C) examine how natural processes such as succession and feedback loops restore habitats and ecosystems;

(D) describe how temperature inversions impact weather conditions, including El Niño and La Niña oscillations; and

(E) analyze the impact of temperature inversions on global warming, ice cap and glacial melting, and changes in ocean currents and surface temperatures.

(9) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of human activities on the environment. The student is expected to:

(A) identify causes of air, soil, and water pollution, including point and nonpoint sources;

(B) investigate the types of air, soil, and water pollution such as chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, pH, pesticide runoff, thermal variations, metallic ions, heavy metals, and nuclear waste;

(C) examine the concentrations of air, soil, and water pollutants using appropriate units;

(D) describe the effect of pollution on global warming, glacial and ice cap melting, greenhouse effect, ozone layer, and aquatic viability;

(E) evaluate the effect of human activities, including habitat restoration projects, species preservation efforts, nature conservancy groups, hunting, fishing, ecotourism, all terrain vehicles, and small personal watercraft, on the environment;

(F) evaluate cost-benefit trade-offs of commercial activities such as municipal development, farming, deforestation, over-harvesting, and mining;

(G) discuss the positive and negative influence of commonly held ethical beliefs on scientific practices such as methods used to increase food production or the existence of global warming;

(H) discuss the impact of research and technology on social ethics and legal practices in situations such as the design of new buildings, recycling, or emission standards;

(I) research the advantages and disadvantages of "going green" such as organic gardening and farming, natural methods of pest control, hydroponics, xeriscaping, energy-efficient homes and appliances, and hybrid cars;

(J) analyze past and present local, state, and national legislation, including Texas automobile emissions regulations, the National Park Service Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act, and the Endangered Species Act; and

(K) analyze past and present international treaties and protocols such as the environmental Antarctic Treaty System, Montreal Protocol, and Kyoto Protocol.

§112.38.Integrated Physics and Chemistry, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Prerequisites: none. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9 or 10.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Integrated Physics and Chemistry. In Integrated Physics and Chemistry, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigation, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. This course integrates the disciplines of physics and chemistry in the following topics: force, motion, energy, and matter.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods (scientific methods) and ethical and social decisions that involve science (the application of scientific information).

(5) Science, systems, and models. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology;

(C) collect data and make measurements with precision;

(D) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and

(E) communicate valid conclusions.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment;

(D) describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers; and

(E) research and describe the history of physics and chemistry and contributions of scientists.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and calculate an object's motion in terms of position, displacement, speed, and acceleration;

(B) measure and graph distance and speed as a function of time using moving toys;

(C) investigate how an object's motion changes only when a net force is applied, including activities and equipment such as toy cars, vehicle restraints, sports activities, and classroom objects;

(D) assess the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration, noting the relationship is independent of the nature of the force, using equipment such as dynamic carts, moving toys, vehicles, and falling objects;

(E) apply the concept of conservation of momentum using action and reaction forces such as students on skateboards;

(F) describe the gravitational attraction between objects of different masses at different distances, including satellites; and

(G) examine electrical force as a universal force between any two charged objects and compare the relative strength of the electrical force and gravitational force.

(5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) recognize and demonstrate that objects and substances in motion have kinetic energy such as vibration of atoms, water flowing down a stream moving pebbles, and bowling balls knocking down pins;

(B) demonstrate common forms of potential energy, including gravitational, elastic, and chemical, such as a ball on an inclined plane, springs, and batteries;

(C) demonstrate that moving electric charges produce magnetic forces and moving magnets produce electric forces;

(D) investigate the law of conservation of energy;

(E) investigate and demonstrate the movement of thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation such as in weather, living, and mechanical systems;

(F) evaluate the transfer of electrical energy in series and parallel circuits and conductive materials;

(G) explore the characteristics and behaviors of energy transferred by waves, including acoustic, seismic, light, and waves on water as they superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, are absorbed by materials, and change direction when entering new materials;

(H) analyze energy conversions such as those from radiant, nuclear, and geothermal sources; fossil fuels such as coal, gas, oil; and the movement of water or wind; and

(I) critique the advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources and their impact on society and the environment.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that relationships exist between the structure and properties of matter. The student is expected to:

(A) examine differences in physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases as explained by the arrangement and motion of atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances and the strength of the forces of attraction between those particles;

(B) relate chemical properties of substances to the arrangement of their atoms or molecules;

(C) analyze physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds such as color, density, viscosity, buoyancy, boiling point, freezing point, conductivity, and reactivity;

(D) relate the physical and chemical behavior of an element, including bonding and classification, to its placement on the Periodic Table; and

(E) relate the structure of water to its function as a solvent and investigate the properties of solutions and factors affecting gas and solid solubility, including nature of solute, temperature, pressure, pH, and concentration.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate changes of state as it relates to the arrangement of particles of matter and energy transfer;

(B) recognize that chemical changes can occur when substances react to form different substances and that these interactions are largely determined by the valence electrons;

(C) demonstrate that mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change and that the number and kind of atoms are the same in the reactants and products;

(D) analyze energy changes that accompany chemical reactions such as those occurring in heat packs, cold packs, and glow sticks and classify them as exothermic or endothermic reactions;

(E) describe types of nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion and their roles in applications such as medicine and energy production; and

(F) research and describe the environmental and economic impact of the end- products of chemical reactions such as those that may result in acid rain, degradation of water and air quality, and ozone depletion.

§112.39.Physics, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Algebra I is suggested as a prerequisite or co-requisite. This course is recommended for students in Grade 9, 10, 11, or 12.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Physics. In Physics, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods during investigations, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving. Students study a variety of topics that include: laws of motion; changes within physical systems and conservation of energy and momentum; forces; thermodynamics; characteristics and behavior of waves; and atomic, nuclear, and quantum physics. Students who successfully complete Physics will acquire factual knowledge within a conceptual framework, practice experimental design and interpretation, work collaboratively with colleagues, and develop critical thinking skills.

(2) Nature of science. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable.

(3) Scientific inquiry. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world. Scientific methods of investigation can be experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked.

(4) Science and social ethics. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information.

(5) Scientific systems. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter. Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled. These patterns help to make predictions that can be scientifically tested. Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Scientific processes. The student conducts investigations, for at least 40% of instructional time, using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. These investigations must involve actively obtaining and analyzing data with physical equipment, but may also involve experimentation in a simulated environment as well as field observations that extend beyond the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and

(B) make informed choices in the use and conservation of resources, recycling of materials, and the safe disposal of science classroom or household chemicals.

(2) Scientific processes. The student uses a systematic approach to answer scientific laboratory and field investigative questions. The student is expected to:

(A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section;

(B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories;

(C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed;

(D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories;

(E) design and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, identifying variables, selecting appropriate equipment and technology, and evaluating numerical answers for reasonableness;

(F) demonstrate the use of course apparatus, equipment, techniques, and procedures, including multimeters (current, voltage, resistance), triple beam balances, batteries, clamps, dynamics demonstration equipment, collision apparatus, data acquisition probes, discharge tubes with power supply (H, He, Ne, Ar), hand-held visual spectroscopes, hot plates, slotted and hooked lab masses, bar magnets, horseshoe magnets, plane mirrors, convex lenses, pendulum support, power supply, ring clamps, ring stands, stopwatches, trajectory apparatus, tuning forks, carbon paper, graph paper, magnetic compasses, polarized film, prisms, protractors, resistors, friction blocks, mini lamps (bulbs) and sockets, electrostatics kits, 90-degree rod clamps, metric rulers, spring scales, knife blade switches, Celsius thermometers, meter sticks, scientific calculators, graphing technology, computers, cathode ray tubes with horseshoe magnets, ballistic carts or equivalent, resonance tubes, spools of nylon thread or string, containers of iron filings, rolls of white craft paper, copper wire, Periodic Table, electromagnetic spectrum charts, slinky springs, wave motion ropes, and laser pointers;

(G) use a wide variety of additional course apparatus, equipment, techniques, materials, and procedures as appropriate such as ripple tank with wave generator, wave motion rope, micrometer, caliper, radiation monitor, computer, ballistic pendulum, electroscope, inclined plane, optics bench, optics kit, pulley with table clamp, resonance tube, ring stand screen, four inch ring, stroboscope, graduated cylinders, and ticker timer;

(H) make measurements with accuracy and precision and record data using scientific notation and International System (SI) units;

(I) identify and quantify causes and effects of uncertainties in measured data;

(J) organize and evaluate data and make inferences from data, including the use of tables, charts, and graphs;

(K) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through various methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports; and

(L) express and manipulate relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations.

(3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and evaluate scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing;

(B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from written text;

(C) evaluate promotional claims such as product labeling and advertisements;

(D) explain the impacts of the scientific contributions of a variety of historical and contemporary scientists on scientific thought and society;

(E) research and describe the connections between physics and future careers; and

(F) express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition.

(4) Science concepts. The student knows and applies the laws governing motion in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and interpret graphs and charts describing different types of motion, including the use of real-time technology such as motion detectors or photogates;

(B) describe and analyze motion in one dimension using equations with the concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration;

(C) analyze and describe accelerated motion in two dimensions using equations, including projectile and circular examples;

(D) calculate the effect of forces on objects, including the law of inertia, the relationship between force and acceleration, and the nature of force pairs between objects;

(E) develop and interpret free-body force diagrams; and

(F) identify and describe motion relative to different frames of reference.

(5) Science concepts. The student knows the nature of forces in the physical world. The student is expected to:

(A) research and describe the historical development of the concepts of gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces;

(B) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between their centers;

(C) describe and calculate how the magnitude of the electrical force between two objects depends on their charges and the distance between their centers;

(D) identify examples of electric and magnetic forces in everyday life;

(E) characterize materials as conductors or insulators based on their electrical properties;

(F) design, construct, and calculate in terms of current through, potential difference across, resistance of, and power used by electric circuit elements connected in both series and parallel combinations;

(G) investigate and describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields in applications such as generators, motors, and transformers; and

(H) describe evidence for and effects of the strong and weak nuclear forces in nature.

(6) Science concepts. The student knows that changes occur within a physical system and applies the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and calculate quantities using the work-energy theorem in various situations;

(B) investigate examples of kinetic and potential energy and their transformations;

(C) calculate the mechanical energy of, power generated within, impulse applied to, and momentum of a physical system;

(D) demonstrate and apply the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum in one dimension;

(E) describe how the macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system such as temperature, specific heat, and pressure are related to the molecular level of matter, including kinetic or potential energy of atoms;

(F) contrast and give examples of different processes of thermal energy transfer, including conduction, convection, and radiation; and

(G) analyze and explain everyday examples that illustrate the laws of thermodynamics, including the law of conservation of energy and the law of entropy.

(7) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics and behavior of waves. The student is expected to:

(A) examine and describe oscillatory motion and wave propagation in various types of media;

(B) investigate and analyze characteristics of waves, including velocity, frequency, amplitude, and wavelength, and calculate using the relationship between wavespeed, frequency, and wavelength;

(C) compare characteristics and behaviors of transverse waves, including electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic spectrum, and characteristics and behaviors of longitudinal waves, including sound waves;

(D) investigate behaviors of waves, including reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, resonance, and the Doppler effect;

(E) describe and predict image formation as a consequence of reflection from a plane mirror and refraction through a thin convex lens; and

(F) describe the role of wave characteristics and behaviors in medical and industrial applications.

(8) Science concepts. The student knows simple examples of atomic, nuclear, and quantum phenomena. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the photoelectric effect and the dual nature of light;

(B) compare and explain the emission spectra produced by various atoms;

(C) describe the significance of mass-energy equivalence and apply it in explanations of phenomena such as nuclear stability, fission, and fusion; and

(D) give examples of applications of atomic and nuclear phenomena such as radiation therapy, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear power and examples of applications of quantum phenomena such as digital cameras.

§112.41.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School.

The provisions of §§112.42 - 112.49 of this subchapter shall be superseded by §§112.32 - 112.39 of this subchapter beginning with the 2010-2011 school year [ implemented by school districts beginning September 1, 1998, and at that time shall supersede §75.64 of this title (relating to Science)].

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900389

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Policy Coordination

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: March 15, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 129. STUDENT ATTENDANCE

SUBCHAPTER B. STUDENT ATTENDANCE ACCOUNTING

19 TAC §129.21

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §129.21, concerning student attendance accounting. The section provides requirements for student attendance accounting for state funding purposes. The proposed amendment would update the rule to reflect statutory changes and changes in other administrative rules that provide for an alternative attendance accounting program. The proposed amendment would modify certain attendance accounting requirements that school districts must follow.

Section 129.21 provides the student attendance accounting requirements school districts must follow and describes the manner in which student attendance is earned. The rule also provides a list of conditions under which a student who is not actually on campus at the time attendance is taken may be considered in attendance. The proposed amendment would update the rule to reflect statutory changes and changes in other administrative rules that provide for an alternative attendance accounting program and would modify the rule in the following ways.

In subsection (i), exceptions to the stipulation that attendance for all grades must be determined by absences recorded at certain times of the school day would be added.

In subsection (i)(1), an explanation of how students enrolled on a full-day basis earn attendance would be added.

A new subsection (i)(2) would be added to provide an explanation of how students who are enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program earn attendance. Existing subsections (i)(2) and (i)(3) would be renumbered accordingly.

In existing subsection (i)(3), to be renumbered (i)(4), an exception to the stipulation that students absent at the time attendance is taken are to be counted absent for the entire day would be added. Also, an exception to the stipulation that students present at the time attendance is taken are to be counted present for the entire day would be added.

In subsection (j), an exception to the stipulation that a student who is not in school at the time attendance is taken must not be counted in attendance would be added.

Subsection (k)(4) would be modified to clarify that not only are days for travel to and from the site where a student will observe holy days or attend a required court appearance to be counted as excused absences, but so are the days when the student is actually observing the holy days or attending the required court appearance.

A new subsection (k)(5), excusing absences for sounding "Taps" at a military honors funeral held in Texas for a deceased veteran, would be added. The existing subsection (k)(5) would be renumbered accordingly.

Existing subsection (k)(5), to be renumbered (k)(6), would be modified to stipulate that an absence for a documented appointment with a health care professional may be counted as excused only if the student begins classes or returns to school on the same day of the appointment.

Throughout the rule, corrections to word usage would be made. The proposed rule action would also update the name of a state agency referenced in the rule.

Shirley Beaulieu, associate commissioner for finance/chief financial officer, has determined that for the first five-year period the amendment is in effect there will be no additional costs for state or local government as a result of enforcing or administering the amendment.

Ms. Beaulieu has determined that for each year of the first five years the amendment is in effect the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the amendment would be updating the rule to reflect statutory changes and changes in other administrative rules. Specifically, the proposed amendment would update the rule to include requirements related to alternative attendance accounting programs. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposed amendment.

In addition, there is no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses and microbusinesses; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis, specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

Comments on the proposal may be submitted to Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez, Policy Coordination Division, Texas Education Agency, 1701 North Congress Avenue, Austin, Texas 78701, (512) 475-1497. Comments may also be submitted electronically to rules@tea.state.tx.us or faxed to (512) 463-0028. A request for a public hearing on the proposed amendment submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 15 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register.

The amendment is proposed under the Texas Education Code, §42.004, which authorizes the commissioner of education, in accordance with the rules of the State Board of Education, to take such action and require such reports consistent with TEC, Chapter 42, as may be necessary to implement and administer the Foundation School Program.

The amendment implements the Texas Education Code, §42.004 and §25.087.

§129.21.Requirements for Student Attendance Accounting for State Funding Purposes.

(a) All public schools in Texas must [shall ] maintain records to reflect the average daily attendance (ADA) for the allocation of Foundation School Program (FSP) funds and other funds allocated by the Texas Education Agency (TEA). Superintendents, principals, and teachers are [shall be ] responsible to their school boards and to the state to maintain accurate, current attendance records.

(b) The commissioner of education is [shall be ] responsible for providing guidelines for attendance accounting in accordance with state law.

(c) The commissioner of education is [shall be ] responsible for providing all the necessary records and procedures required of school districts in preparation of a daily attendance register.

(d) Districts must [shall] maintain records and make reports concerning student attendance and participation in special programs as required by the commissioner of education. Effective January 1, 2001, before a district or charter school may count a student in attendance under this section or in attendance when the student was allowed to leave campus during any part of the school day, the district or charter must [shall] adopt a policy addressing parental consent for a student to leave campus and distribute the policy to staff and to all parents of students in the district or charter school.

(e) If a school district chooses to use a locally developed record or automated system, the record or automated system [ it] must contain the minimum information required by the commissioner of education.

(f) The commissioner of education must [shall ] provide for special circumstances regarding attendance accounting in accord with the provisions of law.

(g) When classroom instruction is organized on a departmentalized basis, a central attendance accounting system must be used.

(h) A student must be enrolled for at least two hours to be considered in membership for one half day [half-day ], and for at least four hours to be considered in membership for one full day.

(i) Attendance for all grades must [shall] be determined by the absences recorded in the second or fifth period of the day, unless permission has been obtained from the TEA [ Texas Education Agency] for an alternate period to record absences , unless the local school board adopts a district policy for recording absences in an alternate period or hour, or unless the students for which attendance is being taken are enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program approved by the commissioner of education.

(1) Students enrolled on a half-day basis may earn only one half day [half-day] of attendance each school day. Attendance is determined for these pupils by recording absences in a period during the half day [half-day] that they are scheduled to be present. Students enrolled on a full-day basis may earn one full day of attendance each school day.

(2) Students who are enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program approved by the commissioner of education will earn attendance according to the statutory and rule provisions applicable to that program.

(3) [(2)] The established period in which absences are recorded may not be changed during the school year.

(4) [(3)] Students absent at the time the attendance roll is taken, during the daily period selected, are counted absent for the entire day, unless the students are enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program approved by the commissioner of education. Students present at the time the attendance roll is taken, during the daily period selected, are counted present for the entire day, unless the students are enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program approved by the commissioner of education.

(j) A student who is not actually in school at the time attendance is taken must [shall] not be counted in attendance for FSP [Foundation School Program ] funding purposes, unless the student is participating in an activity that [which] meets the conditions set out in subsection (k) of this section, or unless the student is enrolled in and participating in an alternative attendance accounting program approved by the commissioner of education.

(k) A student not actually on campus at the time attendance is taken may be considered in attendance for FSP funding [ Foundation School Program] purposes under the following conditions.

(1) The student is participating in an activity that [ which] is approved by the local board of school trustees and is under the direction of a member of the professional staff of the school district, or an adjunct staff member who:

(A) has a minimum of a bachelor's degree; and

(B) is eligible for participation in the Teacher Retirement System of Texas.

(2) The student is participating in a mentorship approved by district personnel to serve as one or more of the advanced measures needed to complete the Distinguished Achievement Program outlined in Chapter 74 of this title (relating to Curriculum Requirements) [§74.13(a)(3) of this title (relating to Distinguished Achievement Program--Advanced High School Program)].

(3) The student is a Medicaid-eligible child participating in the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program [(EPSDT)] implemented by the Texas Health and Human Services Commission [Department of Human Services with contractual cooperation of the Texas Department of Health]. Such students may be excused for up to one day at any time without loss of ADA.

(4) The student is observing holy days or attending a required court appearance as described in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §25.087. A student who is observing holy days or attending a required court appearance is allowed up to one day of excused travel for traveling to the site where the student will observe the holy days or attend the required court appearance and up to one day of excused travel for traveling from that site.

(5) The student is sounding "Taps" at a military honors funeral held in Texas for a deceased veteran as described in the TEC, §25.087.

[(4) Excused days for travel under the Texas Education Code, §25.087, shall be limited to not more than one day for travel to and one day for travel from the site where the student will observe the holy days.]

(6) [(5)] The student has a documented appointment with a health care professional during regular school hours, if the student begins classes or returns to school on the same day of the appointment, as described in the TEC, §25.087. The appointment should be supported by a document such as a note from the health care professional.

(l) In accordance with the TEC [Texas Education Code ], §25.087, students may be excused for medical, dental, and psychological appointments; for special education assessment procedures; and for special education related services.

(m) The superintendent of schools is responsible for the safekeeping of all attendance records and reports. The superintendent of schools may determine whether the properly certified attendance records or reports for the school year are to be filed in the central office or properly stored on the respective school campuses of the district. Regardless of where such records are filed or stored, they must be readily available for audit by the TEA division responsible for performing audits [Division of Audits of the Texas Education Agency].

This agency hereby certifies that the proposal has been reviewed by legal counsel and found to be within the agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on February 2, 2009.

TRD-200900390

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Policy Coordination

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: March 15, 2009

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497